Centre for Endocrinology & Metabolic Disorders
Endocrinology deals with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases that involve hormones; it covers a number of topics including metabolism control, respiration, growth, reproduction, sensory perception, and movement. The endocrine system is a complex group of glands which makes the chemicals known as hormones. Hormones also control the way you respond to your surroundings, and they help to provide the proper amount of energy and nutrition your body needs to function.
The Continental Centre for Endocrinology & Metabolic Disorders features an expert panel of endocrinologists, diabetologists, dieticians and physiotherapists. This specialized team ensures that every patient is treated comprehensively. Our doctors integrate their years of experience with the latest technology to create customized treatment and post surgery care plans. They specialize in the management of bone diseases, thyroid disorders, diabetes, pituitary disorders, adrenal disorders, and disorders of male and female hormones.
Technology at Centre for Endocrinology & Metabolic Disorders
Facilities at Centre for Endocrinology & Metabolic Disorders
Some of the conditions treated at Continental Hospitals are:
Diabetes-related ConditionsDiabetes Mellitus is a metabolic condition characterized by high levels of blood sugar due to reduced or non-functioning of the pancreas. The pancreas is responsible for secreting a hormone called Insulin that is regulates blood sugar to optimum levels. In order to convert glucose into energy, cells require insulin. Prolonged inability of the pancreas to produce the necessary amount of insulin leads to increased glucose in the body and develops into Diabetes.
Type 1 diabetes: Type 1 Diabetes is also called insulin-dependent diabetes. It used to be called juvenile-onset diabetes, because it often begins in childhood. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition. It's caused by the body attacking its own pancreas with antibodies. In people with type 1 diabetes, the damaged pancreas doesn't make insulin. This type of diabetes may be caused by a genetic predisposition. It could also be the result of faulty beta cells in the pancreas that normally produce insulin. A periodic test called the A1C blood test estimates glucose levels in the blood over the previous three months. It's used to help identify overall glucose level control and the risk of complications from diabetes, including organ damage.
Type 2 diabetes: Type 2 diabetes also known as insulin-dependent diabetes or adult-onset diabetes is a metabolic disorder that accounts for 90‚95% of all diabetic cases worldwide. With Type 2 diabetes, the pancreas usually produces some insulin. But either the amount produced is not enough for the body's needs, or the body's cells are resistant to it. Insulin resistance, or lack of sensitivity to insulin, happens primarily in fat, liver, and muscle cells. People who are obese -- more than 20% over their ideal body weight for their height -- are at particularly high risk of developing type 2 diabetes and its related medical problems. Obese people have insulin resistance. With insulin resistance, the pancreas has to work overly hard to produce more insulin. But even then, there is not enough insulin to keep sugars normal.
Diabetes in pregnancy (including gestational diabetes): Diabetes that's triggered by pregnancy is called gestational diabetes (pregnancy, to some degree, leads to insulin resistance). It is often diagnosed in middle or late pregnancy. Because high blood sugar levels in a mother are circulated through the placenta to the baby, gestational diabetes must be controlled to protect the baby's growth and development. Gestational diabetes usually resolves itself after pregnancy. Having gestational diabetes does, however, put mothers at risk for developing type 2 diabetes later in life. It can occur anywhere from a few weeks after delivery to months or years later. With gestational diabetes, risks to the unborn baby are even greater than risks to the mother. Risks to the baby include abnormal weight gain before birth, breathing problems at birth, and higher obesity and diabetes risk later in life.
Hyperinsulinemia: Hyperinsulinemia is often associated with type 2 diabetes, but it isn't diabetes as such. Hyperinsulinemia means that the amount of insulin in the blood is higher than considered normal amongst non-diabetics. Insulin resistance is the primary cause of hyperinsulinemia, with the pancreas compensating by producing more insulin. Insulin resistance of this type can lead to the development of type 2 diabetes, which occurs when the pancreas cannot secrete the insulin required to maintain normal blood glucose levels. Hyperinsulinemia usually causes no signs or symptoms, except in people with an insulinoma in whom it can cause low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). Treatment of hyperinsulinemia is directed at the underlying problem.
Metabolic syndrome: Metabolic Syndrome occurs when a range of metabolic risk factors such as obesity and insulin resistance come together. Metabolic syndrome increases one's risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of conditions¯ increased blood pressure, high blood sugar, excess body fat around the waist, and abnormal cholesterol or triglyceride levels that occur together, increasing your risk of heart disease, stroke and diabetes. Metabolic syndrome is closely linked to overweight or obesity, inactivity and insulin resistance.
Polycystic ovarian syndrome: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine system disorder among women of reproductive age. Women with PCOS may have enlarged ovaries that contain small collections of fluid called follicles¯ located in each ovary as seen during an ultrasound exam. Infrequent or prolonged menstrual periods, excess hair growth, acne, and obesity can all occur in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. In adolescents, infrequent or absent menstruation may raise suspicion for the condition.
Thyroid problems: Thyroid disorders can range from a small, harmless goiter(enlarged gland) that needs no treatment to life-threatening cancer. The most common thyroid problems involve abnormal production of thyroid hormones. Too much thyroid hormone results in a condition known as hyperthyroidism. Insufficient hormone production leads to hypothyroidism. Although the effects can be unpleasant or uncomfortable, most thyroid problems can be managed well if properly diagnosed and treated.
Adrenal conditions: Adrenal disorders can be caused by too much or too little of a particular hormone. When the adrenal glands produce too much aldosterone, blood pressure rises. Uncontrolled high blood pressure can put you at risk for stroke, heart attack, heart failure, or kidney failure. Adrenal insufficiency occurs when the adrenal glands don't make enough cortisol, and sometimes, aldosterone. Symptoms include fatigue, muscle weakness, decreased appetite, and weight loss. Some people experience nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Adrenal insufficiency is treated with hormones that replace the hormones your body is lacking. Cushing syndrome is caused by an overproduction of cortisol, or more commonly, the use of medications called glucocorticoids-cortisol-like drugs ¯which are used to treat inflammatory disorders such as asthma and rheumatoid arthritis. Pituitary Conditions: A tiny gland situated below the brain in the skull base, the pituitary produces a list of important hormones that help to control and set off a cascade of additional, essential endocrine effects in the body. Pituitary hormones are thus very important to endocrine function and health. They include: growth hormone; luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone, prolactin, thyroid stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, anti-diuretic hormone and oxytocin.
Pituitary tumors: These abnormalities are not cancers but are overgrowths. They can cause a number of conditions related to excess secretion of pituitary hormones, which in turn is responsible for most cases of overproduction of other hormones in the body. Pituitary tumors can cause other effects due to pressure against other areas of the brain, as well. These conditions need highly knowledgeable and subspecialized care, often involving neurosurgery. Pituitary failure (or hypopituitarism). Underproduction of pituitary hormones can also result in a broad array of anatomical, physiologic and metabolic symptoms. Treatment is with supplementation of synthetic or recombinant hormones, according to the specific hormones that are deficient, in order to correct these hormone levels.
Osteoporosis: Osteoporosis, or thinning bones, can result in painful fractures. Risk factors for osteoporosis include aging, being female, low body weight, low sex hormones or menopause, smoking, and some medications. As bones weaken, the risk of sudden and unexpected fractures increases. Osteopenia is the forerunner of osteoporosis. It is a silent but destructive condition that robs bones during a woman's -- even a young woman's -- most productive time. Prevention and treatment include calcium and vitamin D, exercise, and osteoporosis medications.
Estrogen/testosterone imbalances: The most common hormone imbalances involve estrogen and progesterone in women. These two hormones are frequently imbalanced for one or more reasons, including birth control pills, stress. Testosterone deficiency is particularly prevalent in men over the age of 50. As the male body ages, testosterone production declines. Some men think they have symptoms of testosterone deficiency, but in reality, it's just excess estrogen. Sweating, Digestion Problems:, Anxiety, Irritability, and Depression, Insomnia and Poor Sleep Patterns are some of the symptoms of hormonal imbalance. Infertility: Primary infertility refers to couples who have not become pregnant after at least 1 year having sex without using birth control methods. Secondary infertility refers to couples who have been able to get pregnant at least once, but now are unable.
Female infertility may occur when a fertilized egg or embryo does not survive once it attaches to the lining of the womb (uterus); the fertilized egg does not attach to the lining of the uterus; the eggs cannot move from the ovaries to the womb or when the ovaries have problems producing eggs.
Male infertility may be due to decreased number of sperm; blockage that prevents the sperm from being released or defects in the sperm
Menopause: Menopause is the end of a woman's menstrual cycle and fertility. It happens when the ovaries no longer make estrogen and progesterone, two hormones needed for fertility or when your periods have stopped for 1 year. Menopause happens naturally with age. But it can also stem from surgery, treatment of a disease, or an illness. In these cases it's called induced or surgical menopause, or premature ovarian failure. It's a turning point, not a disease, but it can have a big impact on a woman's wellbeing. Menopause symptoms include irregular periods, hot flashes, night sweats, sleep difficulties, and irritability. Menopause treatments may include hormone replacement therapy or herbal.